Key Events in Japan's History

La sección de expresión oral en un examen suele involucrar un segmento interactivo con un examinador que evalúa las habilidades de comunicación verbal del candidato en el idioma que se está evaluando. Esta sección generalmente se estructura en tres partes distintas. Parte 1: Introducción y Entrevista Esta fase inicial implica una serie de preguntas por parte del examinador, dirigidas a conocer al candidato. Las preguntas suelen centrarse en temas conocidos como el trabajo, estudios, pasatiempos o intereses del candidato. Está diseñada para que el candidato se sienta cómodo y comience el examen con una conversación relativamente sencilla. Parte 2: Turno Largo o Monólogo En este segmento, el candidato recibe una tarjeta de tema del examinador con un asunto específico y algunos puntos o viñetas. Al candidato se le da un breve período, típicamente un minuto, para preparar notas y luego debe hablar sobre el tema durante 1-2 minutos sin interrupción. Esto evalúa la capacidad del candidato para organizar y presentar pensamientos de manera clara y coherente. Parte 3: Discusión Después del monólogo, la tercera y última parte del examen oral es una discusión entre el examinador y el candidato. El examinador hace más preguntas que están vinculadas temáticamente al tema presentado en la Parte 2. Esta parte de la prueba evalúa la capacidad del candidato para expresar y justificar opiniones, analizar, discutir y especular sobre temas. En general, la sección de expresión oral está diseñada para evaluar una amplia gama de habilidades de habla, incluyendo la pronunciación, fluidez, precisión y la habilidad para mantener una conversación o dar un monólogo sobre una variedad de temas.

Introduction to Japanese History

The Asuka and Nara Periods

The Samurai and Feudal Japan

The Tokugawa Shogunate and National Isolation

Meiji Restoration and Modernization

Post-War Japan and Economic Boom

Your connected workspace for wiki, docs & projects | Notion

Il s'agit du contenu promotionnel pour Notion, un espace de travail connecté qui intègre un assistant IA pour aider les utilisateurs à écrire, planifier et partager leur travail. Ils offrent des solutions pour différentes tailles et fonctions d’équipe, incluant des wikis, la gestion de projets, des documents, et une galerie de modèles. Notion annonce également une nouvelle fonctionnalité Q&A et invite les utilisateurs à s'inscrire sur une liste d'attente. Des histoires de clients, des ressources pour apprendre

Concepts of the IELTS Test

Overview of IELTS

Modules of the IELTS

Listening Section

Reading Section

The Academic version of the test comprises three long texts that are taken from books, journals, magazines, and newspapers. These texts have been written for a non-specialist audience and are on academic topics of general interest, which means they are accessible to candidates entering postgraduate or undergraduate courses. The texts range from descriptive and factual to discursive and analytical, and may include non-verbal materials such as diagrams, graphs, or illustrations. Test-takers are tasked with reading these texts and answering a variety of question types, such as multiple choice, identification of information (true/false/not given), identification of a writer's views/claims (yes/no/not given), matching information, matching headings, matching features, matching sentence endings, sentence completion, summary completion, note completion, table completion, flow-chart completion, diagram label completion, and short-answer questions.

The General Training version, on the other hand, focuses on more practical, everyday texts that one might encounter in an English-speaking environment. Test takers will be presented with extracts from books, magazines, newspapers, notices, advertisements, company handbooks, and guidelines. These extracts are often materials that a person would likely come across on a daily basis in an English-speaking country. The General Training reading tasks also include a variety of questions similar to the Academic version, but the content is aimed at testing the candidate's ability to understand and use English in a practical context, which is relevant to the social and workplace scenarios they might experience.

Speaking Section The speaking section of an exam typically involves an interactive segment with an examiner that assesses the candidate's verbal communication skills in the language being tested. This section is commonly structured into three distinct parts.

Part 1: Introduction and Interview This initial phase involves a series of questions posed by the examiner, aimed at getting to know the candidate. The questions usually focus on familiar topics such as the candidate's work, studies, hobbies, or interests. It's designed to put the candidate at ease and begins the test with relatively straightforward conversation.

Part 2: Long Turn or Monologue In this segment, the candidate receives a topic card from the examiner with a specific subject and a few prompts or bullet points. The candidate is given a short period, typically one minute, to prepare notes and then must talk about the topic for 1-2 minutes without interruption. This tests the candidate's ability to organize and present thoughts clearly and coherently.

Part 3: Discussion Following the monologue, the third and final part of the speaking exam is a two-way discussion between the examiner and the candidate. The examiner asks further questions that are thematically linked to the topic presented in Part 2. This part of the test evaluates the candidate's ability to express and justify opinions, analyze, discuss, and speculate about issues.

Overall, the speaking section is designed to assess a wide range of speaking skills, including pronunciation, fluency, accuracy, and the ability to carry on a conversation or give a monologue on a variety of topics.

Reading Section

Fundamental Principles of Physics

Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its motion and behavior through space and time, and the related entities of energy and force.

Motion and Forces

Physics examines how objects move and interact with forces.

Newton's Laws of Motion

Newton's three laws describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it.


The branch of mechanics that describes motion without considering its causes.


The study of the relationship between motion and the forces affecting it.


Analysis of loads, forces, and torques in systems in equilibrium.

Energy and Work

Energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object to perform work.

Kinetic Energy

Energy that a body possesses by virtue of being in motion.

Potential Energy

The energy held by an object because of its position relative to other objects.


The study of the relationships between heat, work, temperature, and energy.

Conservation of Energy

The principle that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant over time.

Waves and Vibrations

A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space.

Mechanical Waves

Waves that require a medium to travel, such as sound waves.

Electromagnetic Waves

Waves caused by the vibration of electric and magnetic fields, such as light.

Wave Properties

Characteristics of waves including amplitude, wavelength, frequency, and speed.


Repeated back-and-forth or cyclic motion of particles about a position of equilibrium.

Matter and Its States

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space, and it can exist in several different states.


Matter with a fixed shape and volume due to closely packed particles.


Matter with a fixed volume but no fixed shape. Particles are less tightly packed than in solids.


Matter that will expand to fill any container with particles that have little to no attraction to each other.


An ionized state of matter similar to gas but with distinct properties, such as conductivity.

Fundamentals of Modern Physics

Physics theories that emerged in the 20th century and beyond, which describe the behavior of very small or very fast entities.

Quantum Mechanics

A fundamental theory that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles.


Einstein's theories that describe the motion of objects at high speeds and the force of gravity.

Particle Physics

The branch of physics that studies the nature of particles that constitute matter and radiation.

Let’s learn how modern JavaScript frameworks work by building one | Read the Tea Leaves

Building a Modern JavaScript Framework

Exploring the development of a client-side modern JavaScript framework akin to post-React libraries.

Definitions & Context

Clarifying the framework's place in the modern context.

Modern JavaScript Framework

Post-React era frameworks such as Lit, Solid, Svelte, Vue.

React's Influence

How newer frameworks emerge from React's shadow.

Client-Side Rendering

Focuses on frameworks that render on the client side, excluding server-first frameworks like Astro.

Core Ideas of Modern Frameworks

Shared foundational concepts across new JavaScript frameworks.


Push-based reactive model for efficient state-to-DOM updates.

Cloning DOM Trees

Efficient DOM rendering by cloning template nodes.

Modern Web APIs

Using <template> and Proxy for simplified development.

Steps to Build the Framework

A basic outline for creating the framework.

Step 1: Reactivity

Implementing reactivity with Proxy for state management and selective updating.

Step 2: DOM Rendering

Creating and efficiently updating a DOM tree via cloning and placeholders.

Step 3: Combining Reactivity and Rendering

Merging the reactivity system with DOM rendering for responsive UI.

Potential Improvements

Acknowledging areas for enhancement in the toy framework.

Efficient Updates

Optimizing how updates to nested elements are handled.

Cloning Optimization

Minimizing cloning to improve performance.

Iterations & Keys

Dealing with list reconciliations and efficient replacements.


Reflecting on the educational aspect and future possibilities.

Educational Value

The framework developed as a learning exercise and its practical application.

Future of Frameworks

Speculating on browser API evolution to further ease framework development.

Lionel Messi, an Argentine professional footballer, is a name that resonates across the globe, synonymous with masterful skill, remarkable goals, and record-breaking achievements. Messi's journey began in Rosario, where his talent first shone at a tender age. His move to Barcelona as a teenager marked the beginning of an era that would redefine football. At FC Barcelona, Messi honed his talents under the guidance of renowned mentors like Frank Rijkaard and Pep Guardiola, becoming an integral part of the team’s attacking force.

His intricate dribbling, exceptional vision, and precision in front of goal catapulted him to the forefront of world football. Messi has amassed an impressive array of individual awards, including multiple Ballon d'Or titles, attesting to his prowess on the pitch. Yet, it is his humility and work ethic, combined with his otherworldly talent, that endear him to fans and players alike.

Throughout his career, Messi has shattered records and set new benchmarks. His dedication to his craft and ability to consistently perform at the highest level has not only brought glory to his teams but also inspired the next generation of footballers. Off the pitch, his charitable work and gracious personality further exemplify his role as not just a player but an ambassador for the sport. Lionel Messi is not merely a footballer; he is the epitome of artistry and excellence in the beautiful game.

Chat with AI

give me a chat about Steve jobs

Certainly! Here's a brief chat about Steve Jobs:

User: Hi Mia, I've been hearing a lot about Steve Jobs lately. Could you tell me a bit about him?

Mia: Of course! Steve Jobs was an American entrepreneur, inventor, and industrial designer. He is best known as the co-founder, chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc.

User: What made him so special?

Mia: Steve Jobs was known for his visionary approach to technology and design. He was instrumental in the creation of products like the Macintosh, iPod, iPhone, and iPad. He also played a key role in making computers more accessible and user-friendly.

User: Was he involved in anything other than Apple?

Mia: Yes, he was. In addition to Apple, Steve Jobs also founded NeXT, a computer platform development company that was later bought by Apple. Moreover, he was a major investor and CEO of Pixar Animation Studios, which created some of the most successful animated films.

User: How did his work impact the world?

Mia: Steve Jobs' work deeply influenced not only technology and design but also the entertainment and retail industries. Apple's innovative products and its emphasis on design changed the consumer electronics landscape, and his leadership style has been studied by many business professionals.

User: That's really interesting. What happened to him, though?

Mia: Unfortunately, Steve Jobs passed away on October 5, 2011, due to complications from a rare form of pancreatic cancer. However, his legacy continues through Apple's ongoing product releases and the impact he had on the industry.

User: Thank you for the information, Mia!

Mia: You're welcome! If you have any more questions about Steve Jobs or any other topic, feel free to ask.

The Origins of London

Medieval Transformation

Plague and Fire: A City Reborn

Industrial Growth and Expansion

Blitz and Recovery: The 20th Century

Modern London: A Global Capital

Trace the Architectural Evolution

Discuss the transformation of room designs and functions over different historical periods, exploring how architecture has evolved.

Famous Rooms in History

Compile a list of famous rooms that have historical significance, such as the Oval Office or the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles.

Virtual Room History Tours

Create virtual tours of historical rooms from different cultures and times, offering users an immersive experience.

Room Restoration Stories

Share stories and case studies about the restoration of historical rooms, detailing the process and the discoveries made.

Historical Room Replicas

Build replicas of historical rooms in museums or theme parks to provide an educational and interactive experience.

Psychological Impact of Room Design

Examine how the design of a room throughout history affected people's moods and behaviors.

Evolution of Furniture and Decor

Trace the history and evolution of room furniture and decor, noting iconic designs and trends.

Room Usage Shifts Over Time

Investigate how the usage of rooms has shifted, such as how living rooms have replaced parlors in social importance.

Introduction to Israel

Ancient Roots and Biblical Times

Roman Conquest and Jewish Diaspora

Rise of Zionism and British Mandate

The Struggle for Independence

Wars and Peace Process

Economic and Technological Growth

Modern Israel and Future Challenges

Chat with AI

give me a chat about Elon Musk

Elon Musk, the CEO of Tesla, SpaceX, Neuralink, and The Boring Company, is a figure who has significantly impacted various industries. Known for his ambitious goals to colonize Mars, transform transportation with electric vehicles, and develop brain-machine interfaces, Musk's entrepreneurial endeavors stir both admiration and controversy.

His leadership style is unconventional and direct; he often communicates with the public through social media, particularly Twitter, where his posts can influence stock markets and public opinion. Musk's approach to innovation emphasizes the importance of sustainability and technology in shaping the future. Despite facing criticism for his management practices and timelines, Musk's vision continues to drive progress in space exploration, renewable energy, transportation, and artificial intelligence.