Basic Principles of Peace Studies

Theories and Associated Individuals in Peace Studies

Theory: Pacifism This theory advocates for the avoidance of war through peaceful means, focusing on the promotion of peace. Associated Individual: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, also known as Mahatma Gandhi, was an Indian political and spiritual leader who used peaceful protests and strike to lead India to independence from British rule. Gandhi's philosophy of nonviolent resistance, called Satyagraha, has inspired many international peace movements.

Theory: Conflict Resolution At the crux of this theory is resolving conflicts by peaceful means. Associated Individual: Johan Galtung, a Norwegian sociologist and mathematician, is considered the founder of peace and conflict studies. He developed many of the core concepts in this field, including positive and negative peace, structural violence, and peacebuilding.

Theory: Peace Education The focus of this theory is on educating individuals and communities to develop capacities for peace. Associated Individual: Betty A. Reardon, a leading international advocate for peace education, sees it as a human right and designs her curricula to train active global citizens.

Theory: Feminist Peace Theory This theory sees the link between gender inequality, violence and war, and seeks to eliminate these root causes. Associated Individual: Cynthia Enloe is an author and professor who has focused her research on feminist theory. She studies how women and gender are central to understanding war, militarization, and global politics.

Theory: Economic Peace Theory This theory believes that democracies that trade more with each other are less likely to go to war. Associated Individual: Erik Gartzke is a professor and director at the University of California, famous for his work on the capitalist peace and economic freedom. He argues that economic freedom within a state can promote peace.

How to Create an IB Global Politics Lesson Plan on 'Causes of Conflicts'?

Introduction to Causes of Conflicts

Understanding the significance of conflict triggers

We will begin with an introduction to the causes of conflicts. Introduce concepts like economic disparity, power struggle, political ideology, etc. Show the class [this BBC documentary on conflicts](https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/genres/factual/conflictsandwar) to set the stage.

Understanding economic factors

Economic factors like wealth disparities & resource allocation can trigger conflicts. Share this [World Bank article](https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/fragilityconflictviolence/brief/economic-rationales-for-conflict) to help students understand this better.

Analysing power struggles

Explain how power struggles can lead to conflict. Discuss historical examples and let students watch this [history.com video on power conflicts](https://www.history.com/topics/war).

Identifying the impact of political ideologies

Political ideology can lead to clashes as well. Explain this concept with different ideology based conflicts and share [this Economist article](https://www.economist.com/the-economist-explains/2018/02/12/why-do-countries-slide-into-civil-war) with the students.

Delving into human nature and conflicts

Last but not the least, human nature itself can be a cause for conflict. Showcast this video [“The Human Behavior Experiments - Conflict Strategies”](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vrKs_vduiKU), an experiment based video to evaluate this concept.

Wrapping it up

Recapitulating the concepts

Wrap up the lesson by reviewing all the causes discussed throughout. Encourage students to take a quiz on the same to test their understanding - try this [quiz from "OwlCation"](https://owlcation.com/academia/Exploring-The-Causes-Of-Conflict-A-Quiz).

Understanding the Concept of Peace

Exploring the different definitions and interpretations of peace, and understanding how it is much more than just the absence of war or conflict.

Historical Perspectives on Peace

Looking into the different philosophies, movements, and individuals throughout history that have contributed to our understanding of peace.

Role of Education in Peace-building

Examining how educational institutions and programs can help instill values of peace, tolerance, and understanding.

Conflict Resolution and Mediation

Studying the different strategies and methods used to resolve conflicts non-violently and promote peaceable outcomes.

Role of International Organizations in Peacekeeping

Analyzing the roles, responsibilities, and effectiveness of international organizations like the United Nations in preserving and promoting peace.

Peace and Human Rights

Understanding the connection between peace and human rights, and how the respect and protection of human rights can contribute to peace.

Historical Perspective: Ancient Peace Concepts

Exploration of how different ancient civilizations like the Greeks, Egyptians or Chinese understood and implemented peace.

Influence of Religious Teachings on Peace

Study of how major religions such as Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism have shaped the historical outlook on peace.

Renaissance and Enlightenment Views on Peace

Analysis of how periods of Renaissance and the Enlightenment influenced the understanding and value of peace.

Peacemaking in Indigenous Societies

Insight into how peace is maintained and conflict is resolved in various indigenous societies, capturing years of historical wisdom.

Historical Peace Treaties and Their Impact

Detailed look at some of the significant peace treaties in history like Treaty of Versailles and how they've shaped our world.

Cold War and Concept of Peace

Examination of how the period of the Cold War affected our understanding of peace, especially with the advent of nuclear weaponry.

Ancient Greek Understanding of Peace

The Greek concept of peace (Eirene) in both domestic and international settings, its impact on their philosophy, literature, and politics.

Peace Principles in Ancient Egyptian Civilizations

Exploration into the Egyptian hieroglyphics, art, and burial traditions to understand their perception of peace and harmony in their society and with neighboring nations.

Implementation of Peace in Chinese Dynasties

Understanding how principles of peace were portrayed and implemented in different Chinese Dynasties, focusing on Confucianism and Taoism.

Military and Peace in Ancient Greece

An examination of how Greece maintained peace through military power, alliances, and culture, focusing on Sparta and Athens.

Egyptian Diplomacy and Peace

Analysis of how Egyptians used diplomacy for conflict resolution and kept peace with their neighbors, focusing on treaties and marriage alliances.

Peace Concepts in Chinese Philosophy

Exploring how peace was conceptualized and advocated in different Chinese philosophies, from the harmony of Yin and Yang to the peaceful society in Confucian teachings.


Brief overview of the presentation's objective. Define what a peace treaty is, its importance in ending conflicts and establishing relationships between nations. Mention that we'll be focusing on significant peace treaties post 2000.

Peace treaty between North and South Korea (April 2018)

Capture a brief historical background leading to the conflict between North and South Korea. Discuss the key elements of the peace treaty of April 2018 like cessation of all hostile acts, converting the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) into a peace zone etc.

Colombia Peace Agreement (November 2016)

Explain the context of the long-standing conflict between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Explore the main terms of the peace agreement including disarmament and reintegration of FARC, rural reform, and punishment for war crimes.

Paris Peace Agreements: Israel-Palestine (year 2000)

Provide a brief history of the Israel-Palestine conflict. Discuss the 2000 Camp David Summit, the proposed solutions, and why they failed.

Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro (March 2014)

Describe the conflict between the Philippine government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Highlight the key elements of the peace agreement including creation of the Bangsamoro autonomous region and its impacts.


Summarize the key aspects of the discussed peace treaties. Highlight any common elements in these agreements and their global impact on peace and security. End with a note on the ongoing relevance and importance of peace treaties in resolving international conflicts.

Insufficient Education

Promoting quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all is paramount. Explore attention to primary, secondary, and tertiary education, as the rise of industries needs a skilled workforce.

Ensure equal access to education for vulnerable classes including girls, rural and migrant kids, and others who fall behind due to socio-economic differences.

Collaborate with international institutions that fund infrastructure and resources necessary for education.

Economic Instability

It is of utmost importance to implement stable economic policies in order to ensure the well-being and growth of a nation's economy. To achieve this, governments should collaborate with prominent economists, organizations, and leverage historical data to develop a comprehensive roadmap for economic stability. By working closely with renowned economists, governments can gain insights and expertise on the various factors that influence economic stability. These economists can provide valuable guidance on issues such as monetary policy, fiscal reforms, and regulatory frameworks. Their expertise can help identify potential risks and develop effective strategies to mitigate them. Additionally, collaboration with organizations specializing in economic research and policy analysis can further enhance the government's decision-making process. These organizations have extensive knowledge and experience in studying economic trends, analyzing data, and developing evidence-based policy recommendations. Working in partnership with them can provide governments with valuable insights, improve the accuracy and quality of policymaking, and increase the chances of successful implementation. Furthermore, historical data plays a crucial role in formulating stable economic policies. By examining past economic trends, governments can identify patterns and lessons learned from previous successes and failures. This historical analysis can help policymakers understand the long-term impact of different policy decisions and make informed choices to promote stability. Governments should invest in data collection, analysis, and management systems to ensure accurate and reliable historical information is readily available for decision-making processes. To implement stable economic policies successfully, governments should establish a collaborative approach that involves consistent dialogue and engagement with economists, organizations, and historical data. This multi-faceted approach will help governments navigate the complexities of economic stability effectively and increase the likelihood of sustained economic growth and prosperity.

Diversifying the economy is crucial for reducing dependence on a single or limited resources for revenue. This strategy ensures that a country remains productive and resilient even if one sector experiences a collapse. By diversifying the economy, a country can allocate its resources and efforts across various industries and sectors. This approach enables the nation to develop multiple sources of income, reducing the overall risk associated with relying heavily on a single sector. For example, a country heavily dependent on oil exports may face significant economic challenges if oil prices plummet or if there is a decline in global demand. However, if the country has diversified its economy, it may have other sectors such as manufacturing, tourism, or technology that can continue to contribute to its overall productivity and revenue. Diversification of the economy also fosters innovation and the creation of new industries. When a country promotes the growth of different sectors, it encourages entrepreneurship and investment in various areas. This leads to the development of new technologies, products, and services, which not only enhances economic growth but also contributes to job creation and improved standards of living. Moreover, diversification of the economy helps to enhance the stability and sustainability of the country's economy. By reducing dependence on a single resource, the country becomes less vulnerable to external shocks, such as changes in global market conditions or natural disasters affecting a specific sector. A diversified economy can withstand economic downturns better and recover more quickly from setbacks, as other sectors can compensate for any loss in revenue from the affected sector. Overall, diversifying the economy is a prudent strategy for any country seeking long-term economic stability and growth. By broadening its revenue sources, fostering innovation, and increasing resilience, a diversified economy can better withstand economic fluctuations and challenges, ensuring the country remains productive and prosperous in the face of adversity.

By encouraging entrepreneurship and supporting local businesses, we can ignite a positive impact on the economy and pave the way for a self-sustained model. Successful entrepreneurship involves individuals taking risks, pursuing innovative ideas, and creating new ventures that contribute to economic growth. When these ventures are primarily focused on local markets, the benefits can be even greater. One of the main advantages of entrepreneurship and local businesses is job creation. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are known to be one of the largest sources of employment in many countries. By providing opportunities for employment, local businesses can reduce unemployment rates and improve living standards within communities. This, in turn, stimulates overall economic growth as people have more disposable income to spend on various goods and services. Moreover, entrepreneurship and local businesses foster competition. When multiple enterprises exist within a specific community, consumers have a broader range of choices. This competition leads to improved quality, better customer service, and lower prices. In turn, this drives consumer satisfaction and loyalty, encouraging a continuous demand for local products and services. Another advantage of entrepreneurship within local communities is that it supports community development. Local businesses often develop close relationships with their communities, actively participating in local events and initiatives. They support and sponsor community projects, which enhances the social fabric and strengthens the bonds between businesses and residents. This sense of belonging fosters a supportive ecosystem, where the community is dedicated to the success of its entrepreneurs. Furthermore, entrepreneurship and local businesses help to retain wealth within communities. When local goods and services are consumed, the money spent circulates within the community, generating a multiplier effect. This means that the revenue earned by local businesses is reinvested in the community, creating further economic opportunities and generating more income for residents. This self-sustained model empowers communities to become economically independent and resilient. In conclusion, encouraging entrepreneurship and supporting local businesses is crucial for economic growth and the establishment of a self-sustained model. By creating jobs, increasing competition, fostering community development, and retaining wealth within communities, entrepreneurship can boost the overall economy and create a prosperous environment for all.

Lack of Infrastructure

Infrastructure acts as the backbone for any growing economy. Allocate a substantial part of the budget for the development of infrastructure like roads, bridges, ports, etc.

Prioritizing public utilities like clean drinking water, electricity, and sanitation. This not only improves the standard of living but also encourage foreign investments.

Utilizing Public-private partnerships (PPP) mode for infrastructure development. This allows for private funding resources, operational efficiency and makes the process faster.